ADHD and Depression
The present research analyzed the rate of ADHD and depression in a sample of prisoners in Utah. Furthermore, it sought to evaluate if there was a link between ADHD and depression. On a side note, the study considered if ADHD continue till adulthood or went into remission in adulthood.
102 prisoners were participate in the study. Prisoners completed the BDI and questionnaires, such as the Adult List of Problems and the Child List of Problems. Lastly, each inmate was interviewed using a semi-structured interview during which the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale of Depression and the Attention Deficit Disorder-Residual Type Rating Scale were completed.
Independent consideration of child ADHD, adult ADHD, and major depression permitted classification in all three general categories. The following levels under each category provided finer distinctions: 1) no symptoms manifest (none), 2) some symptoms manifest (mild), and 3) significant diagnosable symptoms manifest, meets criteria for child ADHD, adult ADHD, or major depression.
The study found that ADHD and depression were much more common in this prison population. It found that 25% of this population met criteria for ADHD, while 3 – 5% of the general population is thought be criteria. 25% were diagnosable with depression, while 10% were diagnosable with both depression and ADHD.
46.1% of this sample who showed symptoms of either of one disorder (ADHD or depression) also showed symptoms of the other disorder, which point towards the tendency for these two disorder to overlap.
This study highlights the importance of identifying ADHD in youth, perhaps, as ADHD lead to disruptive behavior and may contribute to criminality among other things. Furthermore, the study mention that ADHD may lead to depressive symptoms later, as well as anti-social personality disorder.
Eyestone, L. & Howell, R. (1994). An Epidemiological Study of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder and Major Depressioin a Male Prison Population. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 2, 191-193.